Reported Speech Part II
直接話法 (Direct Speech) 間接話法 (Reported Speech)
現在完了 (present perfect) 過去完了形 (past perfect)
現在完了進行 (present perfect continuous) 過去完了進行形 (past perfect continuous)
過去形 (past) 過去完了形 (past perfect)
1. Reported clause in the present perfect tense, shift to the past perfect:
Leila asked me, “Where have you been all this time?”
Leila asked me where I had been all that time.
He told me, “The cat has broken your vase.”
He told me (that) the cat had broken my vase.
She said, “I have seen that movie several times”
She said (that) she had seen that movie several times.
Mother asked, “Have you done yesterday’s homework?”
Mother asked if I had done the previous day’s homework.
He told us, “China has issued a travel ban to and from the city.”
He told us (that) China had issued a travel ban to and from the city.
He stated, “I have had a wonderful time today.”
He stated (that) he had had a wonderful time on that day.
2. Reported clause in the present perfect continuous tense, shift to the past perfect continuous:
He said to me, “I have been sleeping since this morning”
He said to me (that) he had been sleeping since that morning.
He said, “She has been driving since last night”
He said (that) she had been driving sinceprevious night.
He asked me, “Have you been waiting here for me for two hours?”
He asked me if I had been waiting there for him for two hours.
He asked me, “How have you been doing?”
He asked me how I had been doing.
She said, “I have been having a difficult time with this computer.”
She said (that) she had been having a difficult time with that computer
She stated, “It has been raining here since last night.”
She stated that it had been raining there since the previous night.
3. Reported clause in the past tense, shift to the past perfect:
She asked, “Where did they go last night?”
She asked where they had gone the previous night.
She said, “I saw an ice cream shop on my way here.”
She said that she had seen an ice cream on her way there.
She said, “I think we passed that exit”
She said that she thought we had passed that exit.
He asked me, “Were you married?”
He asked me if I had been married.
She said, “I drank tea at lunch.”
She said she had drunk tea at lunch.
He stated, “We sang songs till the sun came up.”
He stated (that) they had sung songs till the sun came up.