話法 Part II

Reported Speech Part II

日本語は大まかな状況を説明しているだけで詳細な訳ではありません。

ここでは現在完了形、現在完了進行形、そして過去形の時制変換例を幾つか見ていきます。時制変換ルールは次のようになってます。

時制変換ルール:直接話法の内容を間接話法で伝える場合現在完了形は過去完了形に、現在完了進行形は過去完了進行形に、過去形は過去完了形に変換します。

直接話法 (Direct Speech)          間接話法 (Reported Speech)
                                     
現在完了 (present perfect)         過去完了形 (past perfect)
                                 
現在完了進行 (present perfect continuous)  過去完了進行形 (past perfect continuous)
                           
過去形 (past)               過去完了形 (past perfect) 

      
 1. Reported clause in the present perfect tense, shift to the past perfect:
現在完了形は過去完了形にする:

Leila asked me, “Where have you been all this time?”
Leila asked me where I had been all that time.
そんなに長い間どこに行っていたのとレイラさんは私に尋ねた。

He told me, “The cat has broken your vase.”
He told me (that) the cat had broken my vase.
猫ちゃんが私の花瓶を壊したよと彼は私に言った(告げた)。

She said, “I have seen that movie several times”
She said (that) she had seen that movie several times.
その映画は何回か見ましたと彼女は言った。

Mother asked, “Have you done yesterday’s homework?”
Mother asked if I had done the previous day’s homework.
昨日の宿題はやりましたかと母は私に聞いた。

He told us, “China has issued a travel ban to and from the city.”
He told us (that) China had issued a travel ban to and from the city.
中国はその都市に対し旅行禁止令を発令したと彼は我々に言った。

He stated, “I have had a wonderful time today.”
He stated (that) he had had a wonderful time on that day.
今日は楽しい一日でしたと彼は言った。

2. Reported clause in the present perfect continuous tense, shift to the past perfect continuous:
現在完了進行形は過去完了進行にする:

He said to me, “I have been sleeping since this morning”
He said to me (that) he had been sleeping since that morning.
私は今日の朝から寝てますと彼は私に言った。

He said, “She has been driving since last night”
He said (that) she had been driving sinceprevious night.
彼女は昨日夜から運転してますと彼は言った。

He asked me, “Have you been waiting here for me for two hours?”
He asked me if I had been waiting there for him for two hours.
貴方はここで二時間私を待っていたんですかと彼は私に聞いた。

He asked me, “How have you been doing?”
He asked me how I had been doing.
元気でしたかと彼は私に尋ねた。

She said, “I have been having a difficult time with this computer.”
She said (that) she had been having a difficult time with that computer
このコンピュータでずっとトラブっていますと彼女は言った。

She stated, “It has been raining here since last night.”
She stated that it had been raining there since the previous night.
ここは昨夜からずっと雨が降ってますと彼女は言った。

3. Reported clause in the past tense, shift to the past perfect:
過去形は過去完了形にする:

She asked, “Where did they go last night?”
She asked where they had gone the previous night.
彼らは昨夜何処に行ったのと彼女は尋ねた。

She said, “I saw an ice cream shop on my way here.”
She said that she had seen an ice cream on her way there.
ここに来る際アイスクリームショップを見たよと彼女は言った。

She said, “I think we passed that exit”
She said that she thought we had passed that exit.
あの出口を過ぎたと思うと彼女は言った。

He asked me, “Were you married?”
He asked me if I had been married.
結婚していたんですかと彼は私に聞いた。

She said, “I drank tea at lunch.”
She said she had drunk tea at lunch.
ランチでお茶を飲みましたと彼女は言った。

He stated, “We sang songs till the sun came up.”
He stated (that) they had sung songs till the sun came up.
我々は日が昇るまで歌を歌ったと彼は言った(言明した)。