関係代名詞 That

日本語は大まかな状況を説明しているだけで詳細な訳ではありません。

先行詞が人の場合who, whose, whomが関係代名詞となりますが人以外の場合はwhichかthatになります。Thatは制限用法で先行詞を特定すると共にwhichと違い先行詞が人の場合にも使われます。

1. Modifies subject:
主語を修飾する。

The day has finally come.
I waited for the day so long.
The day that I waited so long has finally come.
長い間待っていた日が遂に来た

The three-story building has been destroyed by the typhoon.
The building stood next to the church.
The three-story building that stood next to the church has been destroyed by the typhoon.
教会の側に立っていた3階建ての建物は台風で破壊された。

The car was involved in a head-on collision.
It is being towed
The car that is being towed was involved a head-on collision.
レッカー車で運ばれている車は正面衝突を起こした車です。

The building was built 10 years ago.
I just bought the building as an investment.
The building that I just bought as an investment was built 10 years ago.
投資の為に買ったばかりの建物は10年前に建てられた。

The lady talked to many people.
She hosted the party.
The lady that/who hosted the party talked to many people.
パーティーを主催した女性は多くの人と話した。

The bird built a nest in the tree.
The bird laid many eggs.
The bird that laid many eggs had built a nest in the tree.
たくさんの卵を産んだ鳥は木の中で巣を作ってあった。

2. Modifies object:
目的語を修飾する。

This is the car.
I like to buy it.
This is the car that I like to buy.
これが私が買いたい車です。

He found the used car.
He was looking for a used car.
He found the used car that he was looking for.
彼が探している中古車が見つかった。

He showed us a photo.
It was taken in Mexico last summer.
He showed us a photo that was taken in Mexico last summer.
彼は去年メキシコでとった一枚の写真を我々に見せた。

Look at the children.
They are running around over there.
Look at the children that/who are running around over there.
あそこで走り回る子供たちを見てごらん。

I told the lady to wait for you.
She came here to apply for the job.
I told the lady that/who came here to apply for the job to wait for you.
私は仕事に応募しに来た女性に貴方が来るまでここで待つように言った。

We needed a truck.
The truck should be large enough to hall supplies to the campsite.
We needed a truck that was large enough to hall supplies to the campsite.
キャンプ場まで供給品を運ぶ大きな車が必要だった。

3. Modifies subject complement:
主格補語を修飾する。

They are the members of the baseball team.
I traveled with them all over Japan.
They are the members of the baseball team that/whom I traveled all over Japan with.彼らは私が日本中を一緒に旅した野球チームの方々です。

She is the lady from the Uehara family. My friend married her three years ago.
She is the lady from the Uehara family that/whom my friend married three years ago.
彼女は私の友達が3年前に結婚した上原家の方です。

The car over there looks like my friend’s car.
The car was stolen last week.
That car over there looks like my friend’s car that was stolen last week.
あそこにある車は一週間前に盗まれた私の友達の車に似ている。

The box is a Christmas present.
My parents sent the box for my children.
The box is a Christmas present that my parents sent for my children.
その箱は私の両親が子供たちに送ってくれたクリスマスプレゼントです。

The lady over there was my neighbor.
I played with her as a child.
The lady over there was my neighbor that/whom I played with as a child.
あそこの女性は私が子供の頃遊んだ隣人でもありました。

Those are the ladies he was telling us about.
I went to school with them.
Those are the ladies that/whom I went to school with he was telling us about.
私が一緒に学校に行ったその女性たちが彼が話していた人たちです。