先行詞が人の場合who, whose, whomが関係代名詞となりますが人以外の場合はwhichかthatになります。Thatは制限用法で先行詞を特定すると共にwhichと違い先行詞が人の場合にも使われます。
1. Modifies subject:
The day has finally come.
I waited for the day so long.
The day that I waited so long has finally come.
The three-story building has been destroyed by the typhoon.
The building stood next to the church.
The three-story building that stood next to the church has been destroyed by the typhoon.
The car was involved in a head-on collision.
It is being towed
The car that is being towed was involved a head-on collision.
The building was built 10 years ago.
I just bought the building as an investment.
The building that I just bought as an investment was built 10 years ago.
The lady talked to many people.
She hosted the party.
The lady that/who hosted the party talked to many people.
The bird built a nest in the tree.
The bird laid many eggs.
The bird that laid many eggs had built a nest in the tree.
2. Modifies object:
This is the car.
I like to buy it.
This is the car that I like to buy.
He found the used car.
He was looking for a used car.
He found the used car that he was looking for.
He showed us a photo.
It was taken in Mexico last summer.
He showed us a photo that was taken in Mexico last summer.
Look at the children.
They are running around over there.
Look at the children that/who are running around over there.
I told the lady to wait for you.
She came here to apply for the job.
I told the lady that/who came here to apply for the job to wait for you.
We needed a truck.
The truck should be large enough to hall supplies to the campsite.
We needed a truck that was large enough to hall supplies to the campsite.
3. Modifies subject complement:
They are the members of the baseball team.
I traveled with them all over Japan.
They are the members of the baseball team that/whom I traveled all over Japan with.彼らは私が日本中を一緒に旅した野球チームの方々です。
She is the lady from the Uehara family. My friend married her three years ago.
She is the lady from the Uehara family that/whom my friend married three years ago.
The car over there looks like my friend’s car.
The car was stolen last week.
That car over there looks like my friend’s car that was stolen last week.
The box is a Christmas present.
My parents sent the box for my children.
The box is a Christmas present that my parents sent for my children.
The lady over there was my neighbor.
I played with her as a child.
The lady over there was my neighbor that/whom I played with as a child.
Those are the ladies he was telling us about.
I went to school with them.
Those are the ladies that/whom I went to school with he was telling us about.