関係代名詞 Which

日本語は大まかな状況を説明しているだけで詳細な訳ではありません。

先行詞が人の場合who, whose, whomが関係代名詞となりますが人以外の場合は which か that になります。

1. Restrictive examples: Relative pronoun combines two clauses and clearly identifies the noun/pronoun/noun phrase preceding the dependent clause. The dependent clause is needed to complete the meaning of the sentence. In general, American English avoids the used of ‘which’ for restrictive use, but in British English ‘which’ is freely used in both restrictive and non-restrictive cases.
制限用法:関係代名詞が2つの節をつなぎ従属節が先行詞をはっきりと限定する例。従属節は文の意味を完結させるのに必要である。一般的にアメリカ英語は”which”を制限用法に使うのは避けますがイギリス英語では制限用法、非制限用法の両方に自由に使われます。

The letter is from my mother.
It came this morning.
The letter which came this morning is from my mother.
今朝届いた手紙は私の母からです。

The man had a dog.
It barks loudly at everybody.
The man had a dog which barks loudly at everybody.
男性は誰にでもうるさく吠える犬の飼い主だった。

The tree had to be cut down because of the new zoning ordinance.
It was over two hundred years old.
The tree which was over two hundred years old had to be cut down because of the new zoning ordinance.
樹齢200年以上のその木は新しい土地利用条例の為切り倒さなればならなかった。

The house was built five years ago.
I am going to buy it.
The house which I am going to buy was built five years ago.
私が買う事になっている家は5年前に建てられた。

The magazine is very interesting.
You lent me the magazine last week.
The magazine which you lent me last week is very interesting.
貴方が先週貸してくれたマガジンは非常に興味深い。

The building is the new museum.
You can see it up on the hill over there.
The building which you can see up on the hill over there is the new museum.
あそこの丘の上に見える建物は新しい博物館です。

2. Non-restrictive examples: Relative clause is set off by commas and supplies extra information.  The which clause can be taken out without altering the meaning of the sentence.
非制限用法:関係節がコンマで区切られ情報が継ぎ足される例。Whichで導かれる関係節が無くても文の本来の意味は変わらない。

My neighbor’s house was completely destroyed by a fire.
It was three stories tall.
My neighbor’s house, which was three stories tall, was completely destroyed by a fire.
私の隣人の家(3階建て)は火事で全壊しました。

The story was on the front page of the newspaper.
I find the story difficult to believe.
The story, which I find difficult to believe, was on the front page of the newspaper.
そのストーリー(私にはとても信じられない)は新聞第一面記事だった。

My cat had hidden in the cardboard box next to the house all night.
The cat is three years old.
My cat, which is three years old, had hidden in the cardboard box next to the house all night.
私の猫ちゃん(3歳になる)は家の側の段ボール箱に一晩中隠れていた。

The credit card you are looking for is in my wallet.
The wallet is made of leather and was expensive.
The credit card you are looking for is in my wallet, which is made of leather and was expensive.
貴方が探しているクレジットカードは私の財布の中にあります(財布は皮で出来ていて高かった)。

I had to fix my car.
I bought it less three months ago.
I had to fix my car, which I bought less than three months ago.
私は車を修理しなければならなかった(買って3か月もしない)。

After driving eight hours we finally arrived at Minneapolis.
It is the largest city in Minnesota.
After driving eight hours we finally arrived at Minneapolis, which is the largest city in Minnesota.
我々は8時間ドライブの末、遂にミネアポリス(ミネソタで最も大きな都市)に到着しました。